iSCSI Storage

We provide all types of iSCSI storage to provide data blocks to operating systems and applications. Initially, it used 1GbE and then 10GbE, now it works over 25GbE, 45GbE and 100GbE Ethernet networks providing seamless disk space for virtualisation, operating systems and many other applications that require additional disk space.  Over the years, various storage solutions have emerged, each striving to meet the demands of increasing data volumes, performance requirements, and accessibility needs. One such innovation that has transformed the way data is stored and accessed is iSCSI (Internet Small Computer System Interface) storage. In this article, we delve into the intricacies of iSCSI storage, exploring its architecture, working principles, benefits, and applications.

Understanding the basics of iSCSI

At its core, iSCSI is a network protocol that facilitates the transportation of block-level data over TCP/IP networks. This protocol allows for the creation of storage area networks (SANs) by extending the traditional SCSI protocol over Ethernet-based networks, thereby enabling remote storage devices to appear as if they are locally attached to a server. The iSCSI standard enables the deployment of a cost-effective and flexible storage solution that leverages existing Ethernet infrastructure, as opposed to dedicated and often costly Fibre Channel setups.

Unlike direct-attached storage (DAS) or Fibre Channel (FC), iSCSI doesn’t require dedicated hardware or expensive infrastructure. Instead, it leverages existing Ethernet networks, making it highly cost-effective and flexible. With iSCSI, you can transform standard Ethernet connections into high-speed data highways!

iSCSI Storage

iSCSI Protocol

To put it simply, iSCSI storage offers the best of both worlds: the speed and reliability of traditional block-level storage combined with the accessibility and scalability of IP networking. But before we delve deeper into its benefits and deployment options, let’s take a quick look at how this technology actually works behind the scenes.

iSCSI is a networking protocol that combines SCSI data blocks within Ethernet IP packets. SCSI commands are encoded into Ethernet packets and then sent over Ethernet networks. When they reach their destination, these packets are separated out into Ethernet and SCSI commands and the data is then sent to the relevant device.

Operating systems see iSCSI-connected devices as local storage and are unaware that the storage device connected to the network resides across the room or across town.

  • iSCSI is based on existing industry standards, practices, and applications that are known and understood by users
  • iSCSI is a network storage protocol that encompasses block-level SCSI data in a TCP/IP frame, thus allowing servers to access iSCSI storage resources over an existing IP infrastructure.
  • iSCSI is a cost-effective way to build SAN’s at much lower cost point, giving users greater consolidation in their environment
  • The iSCSI protocol is supported of the major storage vendors and endorsed by Microsoft, IBM and Cisco etc
  • iSCSI is an OPEN architecture that enables an optimized and cost-effective TCO to be achieved and your TCO is protected for the future

With the advent of higher speed, Ethernet networks 25/45/100GbE will start to replace Fibre Channel based storage as the cost to deploy and manage is much lower.

How ISCSI Storage Works

At its core, iSCSI utilises two main components: initiators and targets. Initiators are software or hardware components installed on servers or workstations that initiate the connection to the storage device. Targets, on the other hand, are typically disk arrays or storage appliances that provide the actual storage space.

iSCSI Initiator

The process begins with the initiator, which is typically a server or host system, sending a request to the target for access to specific storage resources. This request is communicated via the iSCSI protocol, which encapsulates the SCSI commands in TCP/IP packets.

When an initiator wants to read or write data from/to a target, it sends SCSI commands encapsulated in IP packets across the network. The target receives these packets and processes them as if they were directly connected via traditional SCSI cables. This means that iSCSI can leverage existing Ethernet infrastructure rather than relying on dedicated Fibre Channel networks.


Before the initiator can establish a connection with a target, it needs to discover the available targets on the network. This is done through an iSCSI discovery process, where the initiator sends out discovery packets to potential targets. The targets respond with information about their presence and available storage resources.

Handshake or Authentication

Once the initiator has identified the target it wants to access, a login process ensues. During this phase, the initiator and target authenticate each other to establish a secure connection. This authentication ensures that only authorised systems can access the storage resources.

To establish a connection between an initiator and target, both ends must be properly configured with unique identifiers such as IP addresses and port numbers. Once connected, initiators can access disks presented by targets just like locally attached drives.

Data Transfer

With the connection established, the initiator can now send SCSI commands to the target, requesting various operations like reading, writing, and deleting data blocks. The target processes these commands and responds accordingly. The data transfer occurs in blocks, where each block is associated with a unique identifier, allowing for efficient tracking and error recovery.


When the initiator has completed its operations, it can initiate a logout process to gracefully terminate the connection with the target. This ensures that resources are released appropriately and that the target is aware of the termination.

By leveraging TCP/IP networking technology combined with SCSI command sets used by traditional hard drives and SSDs, iSCSI offers a flexible solution for sharing remote storage resources in enterprise environments.

Deploying iSCSI Storage

When it comes to deploying iSCSI storage, there are a few key considerations to keep in mind. First and foremost, you’ll need to ensure that your network infrastructure can support the increased demands that iSCSI storage can place on it. This may involve upgrading switches or routers or implementing Quality of Service (QoS) measures to prioritise iSCSI traffic.

Next, you’ll need to choose the right hardware for your deployment. This includes selecting suitable servers and storage arrays that support the iSCSI protocol. It’s important to consider factors such as performance requirements, scalability options, and redundancy features when making these choices.

Once you have your hardware in place, you’ll need to configure the necessary settings on both the servers and storage arrays. This involves assigning IP addresses for each device involved in the iSCSI network and setting up appropriate access controls for security purposes.

After configuration is complete, thorough testing should be conducted to ensure everything is functioning as expected. This includes verifying connectivity between servers and storage devices, testing data transfer speeds, and checking for any potential bottlenecks or issues.

Ongoing monitoring and maintenance will also be necessary once your deployment is up and running smoothly. Regularly monitoring performance metrics can help identify any potential problems early on so they can be addressed promptly.

Best Practices for iSCSI Storage

When it comes to optimising your iSCSI storage solution, there are a few best practices you should keep in mind. These practices will help ensure that your data is stored and accessed efficiently, while also maintaining the security and reliability of your storage infrastructure.

It’s important to carefully plan and design your iSCSI network. This includes properly sising your storage capacity to meet current needs and allow for future growth. You should also consider implementing redundancy by using multiple paths between the host and storage targets.

Next, be mindful of network performance. To maximise throughput, make sure you have sufficient bandwidth available for your iSCSI traffic. Consider dedicating separate VLANs or subnets for iSCSI traffic to avoid congestion with other network traffic.

Another important practice is regularly monitoring and tuning your iSCSI environment. Keep an eye on performance metrics such as latency, throughput, and IOPS (input/output operations per second). Use monitoring tools to identify any bottlenecks or issues that may impact overall system performance.

In terms of security, it’s crucial to implement access controls and authentication mechanisms for both hosts and targets in order to prevent unauthorised access to your data. Additionally, consider encrypting sensitive data during transmission over the network.

Don’t forget about backup strategies! Regularly back up your data from the iSCSI targets onto separate storage devices or remote locations as a safeguard against possible data loss or corruption.

By following these best practices for iSCSI storage deployment and management, you can optimise performance while ensuring the availability and integrity of your valuable data assets.

iSCSI Storage Uses

  • Perfect for virtualisation requirements, the iSCSI is certified to work with VMware, Hyper-V & Citrix
  • Works with numerous software defined companies to deliver localized storage
  • Add local disk space to servers or workstations for backup or DR
  • Database storage is ideal as iSCSI provides a dedicated LUN for the database to use
  • Provide iSCSI high capacity/performance storage to blade servers
  • Use iSCSI for CCTV or media production


iSCSI storage has revolutionised the way data is stored and accessed in businesses of all sizes. With its flexibility, scalability, and cost-effectiveness, iSCSI has become a popular choice for organisations looking to optimise their data storage infrastructure.

By leveraging existing IP networks, iSCSI allows for seamless integration with various systems and devices, enabling efficient data sharing and accessibility across different platforms. This eliminates the need for specialised hardware or complex configurations, making it an ideal solution for businesses with limited resources.

The benefits of using iSCSI storage are plentiful. From improved performance to enhanced reliability and disaster recovery capabilities, this technology offers a robust and scalable solution that can meet the demands of today’s data-intensive environments. Moreover, by consolidating multiple storage arrays into a single virtual pool of resources, iSCSI simplifies management and reduces operational costs.

Deploying iSCSI storage requires careful planning and consideration. It is important to assess your organisation’s specific requirements before choosing the appropriate hardware and software solutions. Additionally, implementing best practices such as using dedicated network segments or VLANs can help ensure optimal performance and security.

Once deployed, managing your iSCSI storage involves regular monitoring and maintenance processes. This includes conducting routine health checks on your storage infrastructure as well as performing backups to safeguard critical data against potential loss or corruption.

In conclusion (without explicitly mentioning “in conclusion”), iSCSI Storage provides businesses with a versatile solution that combines high-performance data access with simplified management at an affordable cost. By embracing this revolutionary technology, organisations can unlock new possibilities in terms of scalability, efficiency, and productivity in today’s ever-evolving digital landscape.

How can we help?

We work with some of the world’s leading networking and iSCSI storage companies to provide solutions to enable your organisation to grow, data delivered faster and reduce unnecessary expenditure. If you want to find out more information please contact us using the details below.

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